Welcome to HTML

(HyperText Mark-up Language)

and the WWW

(World Wide Web)

INDEX:


Tags Used by HTML 1.0.

  1. < P > - This is the begin paragraph tag.
  2. < HR > - This is the Horizontal Rule tag.
  3. Browser characters defined by using the ASCII character code, are created by leading the statement with a &# and the 3 digit char code and a semi colon( i.e. - Þ is defined by & then # then 222 then a ; ).
  4. < ADDRESS > - This is the address string. The address is entered in a series of lines like:
    • name
    • address
    • city
    • zip code
    and are displayed in linear fashion looking like this:
    The UserFriendly Network, 400 Franklin Street, Suite 308, West Reading, PA, 19611-1206
    To have the address displayed in a vertical format instead of a linear format enter a < BR > at the end of each line.
  5. This is the < BLOCKQUOTE > tag: It makes text as follows:
    Welcome to my home page. My name is Michael Weiner and I am the Owner of The UserFriendly Network, a full-service computer consulting and Internet Service Provider (ISP). I work mainly on intra and internet solutions, Web design and hosting, and software and networking solutions for industry. I graduated from Slippery Rock University in Slippery Rock, Pennsylvania. I currently live in the Berks County, West Reading, Pennsylvania. My hobbies include music, computers and internet services. I am often found hanging out on ChatNetís and EFNETís IRC Network, on the channel #comicBooks. I use the nickname hUnTeR (ChatNet) or chemist (EFNet).

    As you can tell the text is off set and lined up on the first tab setting. This works smaller and smaller as you place < BLOCKQUOTE > inside of < BLOCKQUOTE >.
    Example:
    < BLOCKQUOTE >

    Welcome to my home page. My name is Michael Weiner and I am the Owner of The UserFriendly Network, a full-service computer consulting and Internet Service Provider (ISP).
    < BLOCKQUOTE >
    I work mainly on intra and internet solutions, Web design and hosting, and software and networking solutions for industry. I graduated from Slippery Rock University in Slippery Rock, Pennsylvania. I currently live in the Berks County, West Reading, Pennsylvania. My hobbies include music, computers and internet services.
    < /BLOCKQUOTE >
    I am often found hanging out on ChatNetís and EFNETís IRC Network, on the channel #comicBooks. I use the nickname hUnTeR (ChatNet) or chemist (EFNet).
    < /BLOCKQUOTE >
  6. Pre-formatted text the < PRE > tag. This is based upon the Courier New font. Every character is exactly the same width, ergo you can set up a particular format and it will look the same on any server. This is a good method for making columns.
    © 1996 by Sams.net Publishing
    SGML                            HTML                            VRML
    ----------------------  -----------------               --------------------
    Standard Generalized    Hypertext                       Virtual Reality
    Mark-up Language        Mark-up Language                Mark-up Language
    ----------------------  -----------------               --------------------
    Basis language for      Based on SGML                   Based on SGML
    most mark up languages
    ----------------------  -----------------               --------------------
    Language Level:
    ----------------------  -----------------               --------------------
    Complex Language        Basic Language                  Advanced Language
    Powerful Versatile      Simple Straight                 great for rendering
                            Forward                         3D images and models
    ----------------------  -----------------               --------------------
    

    As you can see the text is all columnar and is typed right to the page in the layout you define. Very effective and simple.

  7. Font styles: There are several font definitions available via HTML. These are Italics bold Underlined and Typewriter type. The are defined by the tags < I > < B > < U > and < TT > respectively.
  8. emphasis: To emphasize a group of words use the < EM > tag.It looks like this.

    To use a strong emphasis use the < STRONG > Tag and it looks like this


Attaching a URL
( Uniform Resource Locator )

One of the best things about the World Wide Web, is the ability to link documents located anywhere on the "Web" together. This is accomplished by the use of URL addresses, and linking. To link a document to your page, you need to attach a jump point wi th an address that can be read by any browser. This is done using the < HREF > tag. The tag is usually set off by a different colored font in the browser and when clicked will send the browser to the new URL it has read from your HTML code. The form at looks like this:

< A HREF="URL" > the jump text like The Chemist's Bench Web Site goes here then the link is closed with < /A >

Here is what it looks like:
The Chemist's Bench We b Site
This will send you to the stated page.

You can define not only remote page addresses but also local addresses. For this you can use short hand definitions. These would be in this format. If you page is in a directory called /home/homepage, and you want to link to a pictu re in the /art subdirectory, you could either define the URL link as http://www.yourserver.com/home/homepage/art/filename.jpg, or simply state the URL address as "art/filename.jpg". You will notice the lack of and http:// statement and the lack of the se rver definition. This is called a relative path. These make using several directories much easier. You can use a parent directory by using the double period statement in your relative path like "../filename.jpg". These are strictly defined as files that a re on the server that your client is currently addressing.

Another way to link, is via the internal page. If you are writing a rather long document, it is possible to link to an internal marker, on your page. By this I mean, you can search down your document to an alpha-numeric keyword. This is do this via the extension
< A HREF="#NAME" > . This defines the jumping point, and < A NAME="NAME" > defines the Target. Please notice that there is not a # in the target NAME parameter. This is v ery important. If you have the # in there it will not jump. These are both closed with the < /A > tag. An example of this in use is the directory at the beginning of this document. If you click on a topic, you will notice it just takes to where that topic is defined in this HTML or the accompanying HTML files. To jump to a particular point in a different HTML file, HTML needed to incorporate both the LINK and NAME tags into one statement. The set up for this type of HTML file jump is < A HREF="http://server/path/filename.html#jump-point" > . This will take you to the filefilename.html and jump to the point in the document labeled by the name tag as jump-point.


Using Lists

There are three basic styles of lists native to HTML. These are bulleted, glossary, and numeric. Each listed item in a list has to begin with the < LI > tag. The lists are defined by the tags < UL > < DL > and < OL > respectively. Each list is ended by the close tags < /UL > < /DL > and < /OL > respectively.

The Bulleted List ( < UL > )

Bulleted lists are used to define project steps. These would be goals, objectives, and methodologies. They are ordered only by presentation to the browser. In other words, they are seen, in the order that they are presented, with no hierarchical mark ings, merely bullets. Each item in the bulleted list must be preceded with the < LI > tag. A bulleted list looks like the following.
  • Item 1
  • Item 2
  • Item 3
  • Item 4

The Glossary List ( < DL > )

Glossary lists are used to display a group of Items in a form resembling a dictionary. There are 2 sub-tags associated with the
< DL > tag, that are imperative. The first is the < DT > tag. It defines the definition title. In a dictiona ry, this would be the word you looked up. The second is the definition data tag and is represented by the < DD > tag. These tags work in conjunction to create the following image in the visitors browser:

HTML - < DT > tag
This is the Hyper Text Mark-up Language - first < DD > tag
Aint it grand - second < DD > tag

The Numeric List ( < OL > )

Numeric lists are used to display a group of Items in a numerical Hierarchy. Instead of bullets there is a number numeral assigned to each item list member. This list is set up the same way as the bulleted list with the exception of the < OL > tag that starts the list. Again each item is led by the < LI > tag.
  1. Item 1
  2. Item 2
  3. Item 3
  4. Item 4

Using Alternate Protocols

On the World Wide Web ( WWW ) there are several different formats of file transfer. The one associated with HTML is called Hyper Text Transfer protocol or HTTP. This was a format of exchange designed by the staff at the European Laboratory for Particle Ph ysics (CERN), that allowed for the exchange of information using hypertext. It was proposed in 1989 and by the fall of 1990 the first text only browsers were active on the virgin WWW. These text based browsers were the only methodology of data transmissio n until 1993 When NCSA developed the first graphical WWW browser. This browser is called NCSA MOSAIC. Many people agree that the success of the WWW is entirely a product of these 2 developments.

The following Glossary list describes several different file protocols available to you via HTML scripting:

FTP
File Transfer Protocol
Format for link < A HREF="FTP://HOST/PATH/" > ANCHOR < /A >

GOPHER
A weak search engine that will find files in an index of files that it has via a text phrase.
Format for link < A HREF="GOPHER://HOST/PATH/" > ANCHOR < /A >

MAILTO
This opens a mail session in the viewers browser, allowing for immediate mailing service.
Format for link < A HREF="mailto:email@address" > ANCHOR < /A >

NEWS
This opens a news session in the viewers browser, and allows access to that news group.
Format for link < A HREF="news:news.group" > ANCHOR < /A >

NNTP
Network News transfer Protocol. - This opens a news session with a specified server in the viewers browser, and allows access to that news group via the specified server. ( This is not a very good tag to use because most News Servers are password prot ected. )
Format for link < A HREF="nntp://news.server.location/news.group" > ANCHOR < /A >

TELNET
Enables clients to logon to server remotely and enter commands.
Format for link < A HREF="TELNET://HOST/PATH/" > ANCHOR < /A >

WAIS
Wide Area Information System - Used to access Indexed databases from the WWW. Not used very often, because many browsers do not support it.
Format for link < A HREF="WAIS://HOST/PATH/" > ANCHOR < /A >

Click Here to return to table of Contents

As an author, you have information you would like to publish onto the web. You will need to know how to create and edit hypertext, and you will need to learn the conventions and etiquette of the web. You can begin with the which will explain much of what you need to know about how hypertext is used on the web. Next, the will give more specific advice about etiquette for using the web. When you are ready to start working with hypertext, you can look at any of a number of good resources on HyperText Markup Language, or HTML.
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This page is operated and updated by Michael B. Weiner. Reproduction in any manner without express written consent is not permitted by law. Copyright © 1995-2002. All rights reserved. The Chemist's Bench Web Site, The Chemist's Bench Web Site banner and logo, and The Chemist's Bench Web Site names are trademarks under the exclusive ownership of Michael B. Weiner. All other trademarks are the sole property of their respective owners. Page created on December 28, 1995. Last changes on